Article Type

Original Study


Objective The aim of this work was to evaluate nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) as parameters of oxidative stress in different stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and their correlation with the lipid profile. Background CKD is a debilitating disease that leads to many complications, the most common being cardiovascular. Hence, this study was carried out to evaluate the oxidative stress that predisposes to cardiovascular diseases in these patients. Methods This study included 60 patients with CKD. In addition, 12 apparently healthy age-matched and sex-matched individuals were included as a control group. Patients were classified into five groups according to estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) calculated using the CKD-EPI formula. We estimated serum creatinine, urea, lipid profile [total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c)], serum NO, and SOD levels. Results There was a progressive increase in the mean value of TC, TG, and LDL-c from group I to group V, whereas HDL-c decreased progressively from group I to group V. There was a highly significant progressive decrease in the mean value of NO and SOD from group I to group V when compared with the controls and on comparison of groups with each other. There was no significant correlation between NO and SOD with other parameters in group I, group II, and group III. However, there was a significant positive correlation between NO and SOD with eGFR, HDL-c and a significant negative correlation between NO and SOD with urea, creatinine, TC, TG, and LDL-c in group IV and group V. Conclusion This study suggests that the progressive decline in kidney function could lead to decreased antioxidants levels along with disturbance in the lipid profile.