Article Type

Original Study


Objective To study the risk factors for diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) in Menoufia University Hospitals. Background Problems associated with the diabetic foot are prevalent worldwide. DFUs contribute significantly toward the morbidity and mortality of patients with diabetes mellitus. This study was carried out to evaluate the risk factors for DFUs. Patients and methods One hundred patients with diabetic foot were enrolled and 50 patients had foot ulcers. All were subjected to the following: assessment of full history, physical examination including foot examination through peripheral pulses including Doppler examination of dorsalis pedis and posterior tibial arteries, sensations, reflexes and callus, and routine investigations including HbA1c, fasting, and 2 h postprandial blood glucose. Results DFUs occurred mostly in patients who had had diabetes for a long duration more than 10 years (94%), smokers (50%), those with diabetic retinopathy (92%), those with previous ulcers (74%), those who had a previous amputation (42%), those with peripheral neuropathy assessed by [lost monofilament (100%), lost vibration sensation (100%), lost pinprick sensation (100%)], peripheral vascular disease assessed by [ankle brachial index≤0.9 (84%), Doppler examination detected ischemia (84%)], foot fissures (12%), foot callus (24%), foot deformities (36%), limited joint mobility (26%), dyslipidemia on the basis of elevated total cholesterol greater than 200 mg/dl (40%), and poor glycemic control on the basis of (hemoglobin A1C>7.5%). The types of ulcers were neuropathic (16%) and neuroischemic (84%). Age, sex, diabetic nephropathy, obesity detected by BMI, abnormal ankle reflexes, and elevated serum creatinine were not risk factors for DFUs. Conclusion Peripheral neuropathy, duration of diabetes, peripheral vascular disease, and poor glycemic control were significant predictors of DFUs.