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Objective The  aim of this study was to focus on the main fluid compartments of the body, and their relative volumes, the differences in their composition, and how these factors affect water and electrolyte balances within the body. In addition, the study aimed to highlight the different types of fluids that can be used for maintenance, replacement, and resuscitation in special situations and outline the latest British guidelines on adult perioperative fluid therapy. Data summary Fluid and electrolyte disturbances are extremely common in the perioperative period. Large amounts of intravenous fluids are frequently required to correct fluid deficits and compensate for blood loss during surgery. Major disturbances in fluid and electrolyte balance can rapidly alter cardiovascular, neurological, and neuromuscular functions. In this review, we summarize a clear understanding of normal water and electrolyte physiology, body«SQ»s fluid compartments and common water and electrolyte derangements, their treatment, and anesthetic implications, which are essential parts of perioperative care and the management of perioperative hemodynamic instability. Conclusion Perioperative fluid therapy plays an important role in maintaining hemodynamic stability before, during, and after operation, as well as in preventing electrolyte disturbance. Although it saves life if used cautiously, it can also cause many adverse effects if used without understanding its physiology and how to be used in different situations.