Objectives Assessment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) and study the etiology, risk factors, and outcomes of UGIB in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-infected Egyptian patients. Background It has become evident that the COVID-19 results in systemic complications, including the gastrointestinal system. Patients hospitalized with COVID-19 may be at risk of UGIB. Patients and methods From July 2021 to July 2022, this case–control study was applied to 400 COVID-19-infected Egyptian patients who were classified into two groups according to the development of UGIB: group I (200 patients): COVID-19-infected patients with UGIB classified according to Blatchford score to group-IA: mild (60 patients), group-IB: severe (140 patients) and group II 200 patients: COVID-19-infected patients without UGIB. Results There was a statistically significant difference between the studied groups regarding the use of anticoagulant (P=0.004) and NSAIDs use (P=0.011). For patients’ complications and outcomes, there was a highly statistically significant difference between the studied groups regarding the need for oxygen therapy, ICU admission, the status of patients on discharge, and the cause of death (P=0.05). Regarding endoscopic findings, there was a highly statistically significant difference between the studied groups regarding varices, peptic ulcer disease, and portal hypertensive gastropathy (P=0.00008). Conclusion The frequency of UGIB increased significantly in COVID-19 patients. Patients with COVID-19 when developing UGIB had increased length of hospital stay, more complications, and higher mortality than non-UGIB.
Ali, Atef A.; Sakr, Ayman A.; El-Rahman, Mohamed A. Abd; and Elhamouly, Moamena S.
"Assessment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in coronavirus disease 2019-infected Egyptian patients,"
Menoufia Medical Journal: Vol. 36:
2, Article 25.